Concussions often occur in athletes. But experts still know little about this sports injury. That's because of the brain's complexity and the lack of research on concussions.
Concussions are often hard to spot. A forceful hit to the head or any part of the body that causes a rapid movement of the head may result in a concussion.
Most concussions do not involve loss of consciousness. You don't even have to be hit on the head. A blow to the shoulder that violently snaps the head can cause a concussion.
According to the CDC, 65% of sports- and recreation-related concussions seen in the emergency room are in children ages 5 to 18 years. Symptoms may not happen right away. But they include impaired thinking, memory problems, and changes in emotions or behavior. Concussions in children younger than 10 years old are even harder to diagnose.
Head injuries are most common in contact sports. But protective equipment can limit the risk. A helmet reduces the force of contact and slows the impact to the brain.
Unfortunately, helmets can give athletes a false sense of security.
Soccer isn't risk-free, either. Children should not "head" the ball until they are in their mid-teens. But flying elbows, kicked balls, or collisions may pose bigger threats to unprotected heads.
The CDC advises that you know your concussion ABCs:
Assess the situation
Be alert for signs and symptoms
Contact a healthcare provider
Don't return to sports or recreation activities until you see a healthcare provider with experience in treating concussions.
Rest is key for the treatment of a concussion. The brain needs time to repair itself.
Often athletes have no symptoms after a few days. Headaches, nausea, and other problems may return from plunging back into sports too soon, though.
Other rules of treatment:
Right after injury, a healthcare provider, school nurse, coach, or trainer who is experienced in evaluating concussions should check the person's mental status.
Remove the person from the activity, especially after loss of consciousness, until a healthcare provider experienced in evaluating concussions gives the person approval to resume sports or recreation activities. Experts agree that the person with the concussion should not return to play the day of a concussion.
Initially watch the person's level of consciousness very closely for 30 minutes. Then monitor his or her state of consciousness closely for the next 24 to 72 hours.
Restrict activity until the person is cleared by his or her healthcare provider to go back to normal activities.
The person should gradually return to light activity. Call the person's healthcare provider if symptoms recur.
Experts agree that more research on concussions is needed. Having had one concussion increases your risk for a second one. And if a second concussion occurs, recovery may be slower.
A CT scan of the head may be needed, especially if a person has loss of consciousness or other symptoms.
Symptoms may not occur right away. They may include:
Dizziness or vertigo
Lack of awareness
Loss of consciousness
Nausea and vomiting
Poor attention and concentration
Double or blurred vision
Sensitive to light or noise
If you cannot easily wake a person who has a concussion, they need medical care right away.