Screening tests and vaccines are an important part of managing your health. A screening test is done to find diseases in people who don't have any symptoms. The goal is to find a disease early so lifestyle changes and checkups can reduce the risk of disease. Or the goal may be to find it early to treat it most effectively. Screening tests are not used to diagnose a disease. But they are used to see if more testing is needed. Health counseling is important, too. Below are guidelines for these, for women ages 18 to 39. Talk with your healthcare provider to make sure you’re up to date on what you need.
Who needs it
At routine exams
Yearly checkup if your blood pressure is normal*
Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mm Hg*
If your blood pressure is higher than normal, follow the advice of your healthcare provider.
All women in this age group should talk with their healthcare providers about breast self-awareness
At routine exams
Women ages 21 and older
Women between ages 21 and 29 should have a Pap test every 3 years. HPV testing is not advised.
Women between ages 30 and 65 should have a Pap test plus a high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) test every 5 years or a Pap test alone every 3 years, or every 5 years with hrHPV testing in combination with cytology (cotesting).
Sexually active women ages 24 and younger, and women at increased risk for infection
Every 3 years if at risk or if you have symptoms
All women in this age group
At routine exams, including during and after pregnancy
Diabetes mellitus, type 2
Adults with no symptoms who are overweight or obese and have 1 or more extra risk factors for diabetes (such as having a close relative with diabetes or having had diabetes in a previous pregnancy)
At least every 3 years (annual testing if blood sugar has begun to rise) Blood sugar should be tested for gestational diabetes around week 24 of pregnancy.
Sexually active women at increased risk for infection
Anyone at increased risk for infection
At routine exams (once between age 18 and 79)
At routine exams, including during pregnancy. Preexposure prophylaxis should be offered to those at high risk of HIV infection.
Women at increased risk for infection
At routine exams if at risk
Check with your healthcare provider
Women in this age group 1
Every 5 to 10 years if no risk factors for eye disease
Breast cancer, chemoprevention
Women at high risk
When risk is noted. Chemoprevention may be recommended after age 35.
BRCA mutation testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility
Women with increased risk
When risk is noted. Genetic counseling is recommended and genetic testing if indicated.
Diet and exercise
Women who are overweight or obese
When diagnosed and at routine exams
Women at the age in which they are able to have children
Sexually transmitted infection prevention
Women who are sexually active
Prevention of skin cancer in fair-skinned adults through age 24
Tobacco use and tobacco-related disease
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
All women in this age group up to age 26
2 to 3 doses (depending on the age at which the vaccine series began). If 3 doses are advised, the second dose should be given at least 1 month after the first dose and the third dose should be given at least 5 months after the first dose.
Tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis (Td/Tdap) booster
Td: every 10 years
Tdap: Have a 1-time dose of Tdap instead of a Td booster after age 18, then boost with Td every 10 years
All adults in this age group who have no record of previous infection or vaccine
2 doses; the second dose should be given 4 to 8 weeks after the first dose
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine
All adults in this age group who have no record of previous infection or vaccines
1 or 2 doses
Flu vaccine (seasonal)
Yearly, when the vaccine is available
1 to 2 doses depending on vaccine. Talk with your povider.
Haemophilus influenzae Type B (HIB)
Women at increased risk for infection. Talk with your healthcare provider.
1 to 3 doses
Hepatitis A vaccine
People at risk 2
2 doses given at least 6 months apart
Hepatitis B vaccine
People at risk 3
3 doses; second dose should be given 1 month after the first dose. The third dose should be given at least 2 months after the second dose (and at least 4 months after the first dose).
People at risk 4
1 or more doses
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)
People at risk 5
PCV13: 1 dose ages 19 to 65 (protects against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria)
PPSV23: 1 to 3 doses depending on medical situation (protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria)
The type of vaccine used and the number of doses depends on age and medical situation. Talk with your healthcare provider about when and which type of vaccine is best for you.
* American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines
**There may be exceptions may exist. Talk with your healthcare provider.
1 From the American Academy of Ophthalmology
2 For full list, see the CDC website.
3 For full list, see the CDC website.
4 People ages 19 to 21 who are first-year college students or military recruits or who have one of several health conditions
5 For full list, see the CDC website.
***People who are 18 years old and not up to date on their childhood vaccines should get catch-up vaccines advised by the CDC.
Other guidelines are from the USPSTF.
Vaccine schedule from the CDC