A screening test is done to find possible health problems or diseases in people who don't have any symptoms. The goal is to find a disease early so lifestyle changes can be made and you can be watched more closely to lower the risk of disease, or to find it early enough to treat it most effectively. Screening tests are not diagnostic. But they are used to find out if more testing is needed. Health counseling is vital, too. This plan does not include recommendations for pregnancy. You and your healthcare provider may decide that a different schedule is best for you. But this plan can guide your discussion.
Who needs it
Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
All adults starting at age 45 and adults with no symptoms at any age who are overweight or obese and have 1 or more additional risk factors for diabetes
At least every 3 years
At routine exams
Yearly checkup if your blood pressure is normal.
Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mmHg.1
If your blood pressure reading is higher than normal, follow the advice of your healthcare provider.
Screening with a mammogram every year is an option starting at age 40. Talk to your healthcare provider regarding your recommended frequency depending on your risk factors.
All women, except those who had a hysterectomy (with removal of the cervix) for reasons not related to cervical cancer and no history of cervical cancer or serious precancer
Women between the ages of 30 and 65 should have a Pap test plus an HPV test (called "co-testing") every 5 years. This is the preferred approach. But it is also acceptable to continue to have Pap tests alone every 3 years.
Women of average risk ages 45 years and older
Several tests are available and used at different times.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years, or
CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy) every 5 years, or
Colonoscopy every 10 years, or
Yearly fecal occult blood test, or
Yearly fecal immunochemical test every year, or
Stool DNA test, every 3 years
You will need a follow-up colonoscopy if you choose any test other than a colonoscopy and you have an abnormal result. Screening recommendations vary among expert groups. Talk with your doctor about which test is best for you.
Some people should be screened using a different schedule because of their personal or family history. Talk with your doctor about your health history and what colorectal cancer screening schedule is best for you.
Women at a higher risk for infection
At routine exams if at risk
All adults in clinical practices that have staff and systems in place to assure accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and follow-up
Sexually active women at a higher risk for infection
Adults at a higher risk; 1 time for those born between 1945 and 1965
All women age 45 and older at a higher risk for coronary artery disease
For women ages 19 to 44, screening should be based on risk factors; talk with your healthcare provider
At least every 5 years
At routine checkups
Adults at a higher risk for infection
Check with your healthcare provider.
Baseline comprehensive exam at age 40; if you have a chronic disease, check with your healthcare provider for exam frequency.
Breast cancer, chemoprevention
Women at high risk
When risk is identified
BRCA mutation testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility
Women with a higher risk
Diet and exercise
Adults who are overweight or obese
When diagnosed and at routine exams
Women of child-bearing age and older women with a higher risk
Sexually transmitted disease prevention
Adults at a higher risk for infection
Tobacco use and tobacco-related disease
Tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis (Td/Tdap) booster
Td: every 10 years
Tdap: substitute a one-time dose of Tdap for a Td booster after age 18, then boost with Td every 10 years
All adults in this age group who have no record of previous infection or vaccinations
2 doses; the second dose should be given at least 4 weeks after the first dose
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)
1 or 2 doses
Flu vaccine (seasonal)
Yearly, when the vaccine becomes available in the community
Hepatitis A vaccine
People at risk4
2 doses given 6 months apart
Hepatitis B vaccine
People at risk5
3 doses; the second dose should be given 1 month after the first dose; the third dose should be given at least 2 months after the second dose (and at least 4 months after the first dose).
Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB)
People at risk
1 to 3 doses
People at risk**
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)
1 American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines
2 American Cancer Society
3 Recommendation from the American Academy of Ophthalmology
4 For complete list, see the CDC website
5 Exceptions may exist. Please talk with your healthcare provider.
Other guidelines from the USPSTF
Immunization schedule from the CDC