TPO Abs, TgAb, TSH-Rs Abs, TSI
This test measures the number of thyroid antibodies in your blood. The test can help find out if you have a problem with your thyroid.
Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland near the base of your throat above your collarbone. The thyroid makes 2 hormones, T3 and T4. These hormones affect your energy levels, mood, weight, and other important aspects of your health.
In some people, the immune system makes antibodies that affect the thyroid gland. This causes health problems. These antibodies may target:
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO). This can lead to Hashimoto thyroiditis. This is an autoimmune disorder that causes an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism).
Thyroglobulin (Tg). This substance in the thyroid plays a role in T3 and T4 production. Almost everyone with Hashimoto thyroiditis has high levels of antibodies against TPO and Tg.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor. This can cause Graves disease. This can lead to overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).
You may need this test if your healthcare provider thinks that you may have Graves disease or Hashimoto thyroiditis.
Symptoms of Graves disease include:
Eye symptoms like irritation, pressure, light sensitivity, double vision, and trouble moving eyes
Low tolerance for heat
Tremors in the hands
Fast, irregular heartbeat
Redness and swelling on shins
Swollen thyroid, called goiter
Symptoms of Hashimoto thyroiditis include:
Goiter that shrinks over time
Low tolerance for cold
Body and joint pain
Irregular menstrual periods
Slower heart rate
You may also have other tests, including:
Blood test to measure your level of TSH, which is made by your pituitary gland. TSH sets how much thyroid hormone your thyroid makes.
Blood tests to measure free T4 and free T3 levels
Thyroid ultrasound to look for changes in the thyroid gland
Radioactive iodine uptake test and thyroid scan to look for signs of Graves' disease
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.
Negative results mean that no antibodies against TPO, Tg, or TSH were found. You likely don't have a problem with your thyroid.
If your results show antibodies against TPO or Tg, you may have Hashimoto thyroiditis.
If your results show antibodies against TSH receptor, you may have Graves' disease.
People with type 1 diabetes or certain autoimmune diseases and pregnant women are more likely to have antibodies against the thyroid.
The test is done with a blood sample. A needle is used to draw blood from a vein in your arm or hand.
Having a blood test with a needle carries some risks. These include bleeding, infection, bruising, and feeling lightheaded. When the needle pricks your arm or hand, you may feel a slight sting or pain. Afterward, the site may be sore.
Certain medicines can affect your results. Being pregnant can affect your results.
You don't need to prepare for this test. But be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use.