Many people have surgically implanted cardiac devices. These devices can include pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Pacemakers can help treat slow heart rhythms. ICDs stop dangerous, rapid heart rhythms.
Both these devices have 2 main components: a pulse generator and one or more leads. The pulse generator is a small computer with electric circuits and a battery. The leads are wires that run between the pulse generator and the heart. These leads can deliver a burst of energy. This burst of energy can cause the heart to beat more quickly (as with a pacemaker), or it can stop dangerous, rapid heart rhythms (as with an ICD). To do this, the leads need to make contact with the heart itself. Most leads travel through a vein to enter the right side of the heart. They often connect to the inside of the heart directly into the muscle of the heart wall. The body forms scar tissue around the lead, which anchors it firmly to the heart.
The design of the leads allows them to stay attached to the heart permanently. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to remove leads. This is called lead extraction. The surgeon opens the area where the leads are attached to the pulse generator and disconnects the leads. Laser or mechanical sheaths are then placed over the leads to free them from the scar tissue and heart muscle. This allows the leads to be removed safely from the body.
Leads usually stay in the body permanently, but you may need to have them removed in certain cases. Your healthcare provider will only perform lead extraction if the benefits outweigh the risks.
Device infection is the most common reason for lead extraction. This is often necessary if any part of the pacemaker or ICD becomes infected. It is likely impossible to get rid of the infection without doing this. The pulse generator and all the leads must be removed. Infection of a heart valve may also require generator and lead extraction.
Broken leads are another major reason for lead extraction. This might happen when there is a break in the wire, for example. Broken leads may not need to be removed. Sometimes, a surgeon can leave the broken lead inside the heart and place a new lead beside it. But this may not always be possible because space may be limited. Even if there is space available for the new lead, people sometimes have the lead removed. For example, a young person who would probably need more leads in the future may choose to have a broken lead removed. That's because lead removal is more difficult to do later. Lead removal may also be done if you may need MRI at a later date. Abandoned leads would prevent you from getting the MRI.
Some people get a pacemaker, but later need an ICD. In such cases, one of the pacemaker leads is often removed and a new ICD lead is placed. This is done because pacemaker leads are unable to deliver a shock, so an ICD lead is needed.
There are a number of other reasons for lead extraction, but they are less common. These include:
Dangerous or malfunctioning leads such as a protruding wire
Recall on a specific pacemaker or ICD lead
Clot formation on a lead that obstructs a vein
Retained lead triggering abnormal heart rhythms or other complications
An upgrade to a newer system that is MRI compatible
Lead removal is successful in most people, but it is a complex procedure with risks. It has some real risks that will be reviewed with you in detail. There is a chance of puncturing the heart or tearing a surrounding blood vessel. This can cause major bleeding in the chest. This might require blood transfusion or immediate open-heart surgery. Other possible problems include:
Blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism)
Damage to the heart valve on the right side of the heart, causing it to leak
Complications from anesthesia
Fluid accumulation around the heart or lung
Bleeding under the skin
Swelling of the arm
Fragments of the lead being dislodged
Certain factors make complications a little more likely. These include: being female; having a small body size; and having chronic kidney disease. Leads that are older, or hardened (calcified) or if you need more than 1 lead removed, can also raise your risk for complications. Your specific risks will depend on your specific health conditions. Talk with your healthcare provider about your concerns before your lead extraction.
Talk with your healthcare provider about what you should do to prepare for your lead extraction. Follow any directions you are given for not eating or drinking before the procedure.
Often this is before midnight of the day of your procedure. Follow instructions about what medicines to take before the procedure. Don’t stop taking any medicine unless your healthcare provider tells you to do so. If you take medicines that affect your blood's ability to clot (blood thinners), you may need to stop taking them before the procedure. Talk with your healthcare provider about what medicines you should and should not take and when to stop taking them.
You may also have some tests before your procedure. These might include:
Electrocardiogram (ECG), to analyze the heart rhythm
Echocardiography (echo), to evaluate heart anatomy and function
Venogram, to evaluate vein anatomy surrounding the device
Blood tests, to establish a baseline before the procedure
Let your healthcare provider know if you are pregnant before having the procedure. The imaging used during the procedure uses radiation, which may be a risk to the fetus. If you are a woman of childbearing age, your healthcare provider may want you to have a pregnancy test to make sure you aren’t pregnant.
If needed, the skin above the area of operation (in your groin or shoulder) may need to be shaved.
The procedure takes 2 to 4 hours. A cardiologist and a special team of nurses and technicians will do the extraction. Generally, during the procedure:
You will be given anesthesia before the procedure starts. Often times, general anesthesia is used. This will help you sleep deeply and painlessly through the procedure. Afterwards, you won’t remember it.
An IV line is placed in the arm and possibly in the groin area.
A transesophageal ultrasound probe may be placed in the esophagus. This allows real time visualization of the heart and surrounding structures.
An incision is made over the device and the device is removed
Next, the leads are removed from the heart using the sheath inserted through the blood vessel. A variety of methods and tools can be used depending on your specific situation.
The team will carefully monitor you throughout the procedure. If complications arise, you may need to have immediate open heart surgery.
The team will remove the leads and sheath through the blood vessel. In some cases, they also might place new leads at this time.
The team will close and bandage the site where the sheath was inserted.
In the hospital after the procedure:
You will spend several hours in a recovery room.
The team will monitor your vital signs, such as your heart rate and breathing. They will also monitor your heart rhythm.
If the extraction involved using a vein in your leg, you will need to lie flat for several hours after the procedure. You should not bend your legs. This will help prevent bleeding.
You may receive pain medicine if you need it.
Time in the hospital varies, but you will likely spend at least one night.
You will need a follow-up chest X-ray to check your heart and lungs after the procedure and check to make sure that any new leads placed are in the right position.
At home after the procedure:
You will probably be able to return to light activity relatively soon.
You may have stitches (sutures) that will need to be removed after the procedure. Talk with your healthcare provider about when these should be removed.
Call your healthcare provider if you have increased swelling, increased bleeding or drainage, or a fever.
After you leave the hospital, it is important to follow all the instructions your healthcare provider gives you for medicines, exercise, diet, and wound care. Be sure to keep all your follow-up appointments.
Before you agree to the test or the procedure, make sure you know:
The name of the test or procedure
The reason you are having the test or procedure
What results to expect and what they mean
The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
What the possible side effects or complications are
When and where you are to have the test or procedure
Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
What would happen if you did not have the test or procedure
Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
When and how you will get the results
Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
How much you will have to pay for the test or procedure