Arthroplasty is a surgery to restore the function of a joint. A joint can be restored by resurfacing the bones. An artificial joint (prosthesis) may also be used.
Various types of arthritis may affect the joints. Osteoarthritis is the most common reason for arthroplasty. This is a common degenerative joint disease. It causes a loss of the cartilage or cushion in a joint.
Arthroplasty may be used when medical treatments no longer relieve joint pain and disability. Some treatments for osteoarthritis that may be used before arthroplasty include:
Limiting painful activities
Assistive devices for walking, such as a cane
Cortisone injections into a knee joint
Viscosupplementation injections, to add lubrication into the joint to make joint movement less painful
Loss of excess weight
Exercise and conditioning
People who have arthroplasty usually have a lot of relief from their joint pain. They are more able to do daily activities, and have a better quality of life.
Most joint surgery is done on the hip and knee. Surgery on the ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers is done less often.
There may be other reasons for your healthcare provider to advise arthroplasty.
All surgery has risks. The risks of this surgery include:
Blood clots in the legs or lungs
Loosening of prosthetic parts
Stiffness or pain that does not go away
Nerves or blood vessels in the area of surgery may be injured. This results in weakness or numbness. The joint pain may not be relieved by the surgery. Or full function of the joint may not return.
There may be other risks depending on your overall health. Talk about any concerns with your healthcare provider before the procedure.
Your healthcare provider will explain the procedure to you. Ask any questions that you have about the procedure.
You will be asked to sign a consent form. This gives your permission to do the procedure. Read the form carefully. Ask questions if something is not clear.
Your healthcare provider will ask about your health history. They may also give you a physical exam. This is done to make sure you are in good health before having the procedure. You may have blood tests or other diagnostic tests.
Tell your healthcare provider if you are sensitive to or are allergic to any medicines, latex, tape, metals, and anesthesia medicine (local and general).
Tell your healthcare provider of all medicines (prescribed and over-the-counter) and herbal supplements that you are taking.
Tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of bleeding disorders or if you are taking any anticoagulant (blood-thinning) medicines. Tell them if you take aspirin, or other medicines that affect blood clotting. You may need to stop these medicines before the procedure.
If you are pregnant or may be pregnant, tell your healthcare provider.
You will be asked to not eat for 8 hours before the procedure, generally after midnight.
You may receive a sedative before the procedure to help you relax.
You may meet with a physical therapist before your surgery to talk about rehabilitation.
Arrange for someone to help around the house for 1 or 2 weeks after you go home from the hospital.
Based on your overall health, your healthcare provider may advise other kinds of preparation.
Arthroplasty usually requires a stay in a hospital. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and your healthcare provider's practices.
Arthroplasty may be done while you are asleep under general anesthesia. Or it may be done while you are awake under local anesthesia. Your anesthesiologist will talk with you in advance.
Generally, arthroplasty follows this process:
You will be asked to remove clothing and will be given a medical gown to wear.
An IV line may be started in a vein in your arm or hand.
You will be positioned on the operating table in a way that gives the best access to the joint to be treated.
A urinary catheter may be inserted.
If there is a lot of hair at the surgical site, it may be shaved off.
The anesthesiologist will watch your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and blood oxygen level during the surgery.
The skin over the surgical site will be cleaned with an antiseptic solution.
The healthcare provider will make an incision in the area of the joint.
They will repair or remove the damaged parts of the joint.
The incision will be closed with stitches or surgical staples.
A sterile bandage or dressing will be applied.
After the surgery, you will be taken to the recovery room for observation. Once your blood pressure, pulse, and breathing are stable and you are alert, you will be taken to your hospital room. Arthroplasty usually needs an in-hospital stay of a few days. But some are now done as an outpatient procedure.
It is important to begin moving the new joint after surgery. A physical therapist will meet with you soon after your surgery. He or she will plan an exercise rehabilitation program for you. Your pain may be controlled with medicine so that you can take part in the exercise program. You will be given an exercise plan to follow both in the hospital and after discharge.
You will go home or to a rehab center. In either case, your healthcare provider will arrange for ongoing physical therapy until you regain muscle strength and good range of motion.
Once you are home, it will be important to keep the surgical area clean and dry. Your healthcare provider will give you bathing instructions. The stitches or surgical staples will be removed during a follow-up office visit.
Take a pain reliever for pain as advised by your healthcare provider. Aspirin or some other pain medicines may increase the chance of bleeding. Be sure to take only approved medicines.
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any of these:
Fever or chills
Redness, swelling, bleeding, or other fluid leaking from the incision site
Pain around the incision site that gets worse
Numbness or tingling of the affected area
You may go back to your normal diet unless your healthcare provider tells you not to.
Don't drive until your healthcare provider tells you to. You may be given other activity limits.
Making some changes to your home may help you during your recovery. These change may include:
Handrails along all stairs
Safety handrails in the shower or bath
Shower bench or chair
Raised toilet seat
Stable chair with firm seat cushion and firm back with 2 arms, to let your knees be lower than your hips when you sit
Long-handled sponge and shower hose
Long-handled shoe horn
Reaching stick to grab objects
Firm pillows to raise the hips above the knees when sitting
Removing loose carpets and electrical cords that may cause you to trip
Your healthcare provider may give you other instructions after the procedure.
Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:
The name of the test or procedure
The reason you are having the test or procedure
What results to expect and what they mean
The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
What the possible side effects or complications are
When and where you are to have the test or procedure
Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
What would happen if you did not have the test or procedure
Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
When and how you will get the results
Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
How much you will have to pay for the test or procedure