Hydrogen breath test, HBT, lactose breath test
This test measures the amount of hydrogen gas in your breath at regular intervals. It will show how well your body breaks down lactose, the sugar found in dairy products, and fructose, the sugar in fruit. This test also shows whether you have a high amount of bacteria in your small intestine.
Normally, the lactose you eat is broken down in your small intestine. If it can't be broken down there, it goes to your colon, or large intestine. In the colon, the lactose can ferment, causing excess hydrogen. This extra hydrogen is absorbed into your blood and travels to the lungs, where you release it in your breath.
You may need this test if you have symptoms of lactose intolerance. Symptoms include:
Diarrhea, especially after you eat or drink milk and other dairy products, such as ice cream and cheese
Lactose intolerance is more common in people of certain ethnic backgrounds. These include African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, and Asian.
You also might have this test if you have an intestinal problem like inflammatory bowel disease or a malabsorption syndrome like short gut syndrome. Infants who are not gaining enough weight may also have this test.
Your healthcare provider might also order a glucose tolerance test, which is used mainly to diagnose diabetes. A glucose tolerance test can help tell whether your symptoms are caused by lactose intolerance or diarrhea from malabsorption.
If this test is for your child, he or she may have stool tested for acidity. A child may have glucose in his or her stool because of undigested lactose.
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.
Normal test results compare your exhaled breath before and after you drink liquid containing sugar. The amount of hydrogen gas in your breath should increase by no more than 20 parts per million.
If your breath test shows you are exhaling large amounts of hydrogen, it may mean you aren't fully digesting and absorbing lactose.
This test is done with several breath samples over a period of time. You will first breathe into a bag. Then you will drink a beverage that contains lactose, fructose, or other sugars. You must drink it all. About every 30 minutes for the next 3 to 4 hours, you will be asked to breathe into a bag. Each time, a technician will empty the bag with a syringe.
If you are lactose intolerant, drinking the sugar may cause bloating, cramps, diarrhea, and gas.
Your results could be affected if you:
Exercise strenuously before or during testing
Take antibiotics within a month before testing
Eat or drink while testing
Smoke before or during testing
Chew gum or breath mints during testing
Stop taking antibiotics at least 2 to 4 weeks before your test.
The day before your test, don't eat high-fiber foods, such as beans or whole-grain cereals. Don't drink carbonated beverages.
Don't eat or drink anything except for water for a period of time before the test. Your healthcare provider will tell you how long this will be.
Don't smoke the day before testing.
Don't exercise strenuously the day before testing.
Brush your teeth before your test begins, or as directed by your healthcare provider.
Your healthcare provider may give you other dietary instructions. Be sure your provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.