Suicide is when a teen causes his or her own death on purpose. Before trying to take their own life, a teen may have thoughts of wanting to die. This is called suicidal ideation. He or she may also have suicidal behavior. That’s when a teen is focused on doing things that cause his or her own death.
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in young people ages 15 to 24. The CDC reports that:
Boys are 4 times more likely to die from suicide than girls.
Girls are more likely to try to commit suicide than boys.
Guns are used in more than half of all youth suicides.
The teen years are a stressful time. They are filled with major changes. These include body changes, changes in thoughts, and changes in feelings. Strong feelings of stress, confusion, fear, and doubt may affect a teen’s problem-solving and decision-making. He or she may also feel a pressure to succeed.
For some teens, normal developmental changes can be very unsettling when combined with other events, such as:
Changes in their families, such as divorce, siblings moving out, or moving to a new town
Changes in friendships
Problems in school
These problems may seem too hard or embarrassing to overcome. For some, suicide may seem like a solution.
A teen’s risk for suicide varies with age, gender, and cultural and social influences. Risk factors may change over time. They are:
One or more mental or substance abuse problems
Undesirable life events such as being bullied or recent losses, such as the death of a parent
Family history of mental or substance abuse problems
Family history of suicide
Family violence, including physical, sexual, or verbal or emotional abuse
Past suicide attempt
Gun in the home
Exposure to the suicidal behavior of others, such as from family or peers, in the news, or in fiction stories
Many of the warning signs of suicide are also symptoms of depression. They are:
Changes in eating and sleeping habits
Loss of interest in normal activities
Withdrawal from friends and family members
Acting-out behaviors and running away
Alcohol and drug use
Neglecting one’s personal appearance
Obsession with death and dying
More physical complaints often linked to emotional distress, such as stomachaches, headaches, and extreme tiredness (fatigue)
Loss of interest in school or schoolwork
Feeling he or she wants to die
Lack of response to praise
Another warning sign is making plans or efforts toward committing suicide:
Says “I want to kill myself,” or “I'm going to commit suicide.”
Gives verbal hints, such as “I won't be a problem much longer,” or “If anything happens to me, I want you to know ....”
Gives away favorite things or throws away important belongings
Becomes suddenly cheerful after being depressed
May express strange thoughts
Writes 1 or more suicide notes
These warning signs may seem like other health problems. Have your teen see his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Threats of suicide are a cry for help. Always take such statements, thoughts, behaviors, or plans very seriously. Any teen who expresses thoughts of suicide should not be left alone and should be evaluated right away. Talk with your teen’s healthcare provider about suicide and have a written emergency plan.
Any teen who has tried to commit suicide needs a physical checkup first to rule out life-threatening health problems. He or she should then get a mental health evaluation and treatment until he or she is stable. This often will take place at an inpatient facility to make sure of the child’s safety.
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
Treatment starts with a detailed evaluation of events in your teen’s life during the 2 to 3 days before the suicidal behaviors. Treatment may include:
Family therapy. Parents play a vital role in treatment.
An extended hospital stay, if needed. This gives the child a supervised and safe environment.
Learning the warning signs of teen suicide can prevent an attempt. Keeping open communication with your teen and his or her friends gives you a chance to help when needed. Also take these steps:
Keep medicines and guns away from children and teens.
Get your teen help for any mental or substance abuse problems.
Support your teen. Listen, try not to offer undue criticism, and stay connected.
Become informed about teen suicide. Resources include the public library, local support groups, and the Internet.
Know the warning signs for depression:
Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or loneliness
Declining school performance
Loss of interest in social and sports activities
Sleeping too little or too much
Changes in weight or appetite
Nervousness, agitation, or grouchiness
Teens can take these steps to help prevent suicide if they see warning signs in a friend:
Take their friend’s behavior and talk of suicide seriously.
Encourage their friend to seek expert help. Go with the friend, if needed.
Talk right away with an adult they trust about their friend.
Call your teen’s healthcare provider right away if your teen:
Feels extreme depression, fear, anxiety, or anger toward him or herself or others
Feels out of control
Hears voices that others don’t hear
Sees things that others don’t see
Can’t sleep or eat for 3 days in a row
Shows behavior that concerns friends, family, or teachers, and others express concern about this behavior and ask you to seek help
Call 911 if your teen has suicidal thoughts, a suicide plan, and the means to carry out the plan.
Suicide is when a teen causes his or her own death on purpose.
Suicidal ideation is when a teen has thoughts of wanting to die.
Suicidal behavior is when a teen is focused on doing things that cause his or her own death.
Normal developmental changes combined with stressful life events may cause a teen to think about suicide.
Many of the warning signs of suicide are also symptoms of depression.
Any teen who expresses suicidal thoughts should not be left alone and should be evaluated right away.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.