Catheter ablation is a nonsurgical procedure used to treat an abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia). An arrhythmia can make your heart beat too fast or in an irregular pattern. During the procedure a healthcare provider guides a flexible tube (catheter) into your heart. The catheter is placed near the small area of heart tissue that may be causing your abnormal heartbeat. Once there, heat (radiofrequency) or cold energy (cryoablation) is used to destroy the tissue.
You may need catheter ablation if you have an arrhythmia. An arrhythmia is a problem with the rhythm of your heartbeat. Your heart may beat too fast. Or you may have an irregular heartbeat.
Catheter ablation can improve or even cure an arrhythmia. It can be an alternative to long-term or lifelong medicine use. It is also an option when medicine has failed to control your heart rhythm problem.
These are some of the risks of catheter ablation:
Bruising or bleeding at the catheter insertion site
Blood clots including stroke
Injury to the blood vessels or heart, that may require an emergency procedure
Slow heart rate that may require a pacemaker
Problems with anesthesia
To get ready for catheter ablation:
Tell your healthcare provider about all prescription and over-the-counter medicines you take. This includes herbs, supplements, and vitamins. If you are allergic to any medicines, tell your healthcare provider.
Have any recommended tests, such as blood tests.
Follow any directions you are given for not eating or drinking before the procedure.
Catheter ablation can take anywhere from 2 to 4 hours. It is often done in an electrophysiology lab by a cardiac electrophysiologist. This is a cardiologist with special training in treating abnormal heart rhythms.
During the procedure:
You will be given IV (intravenous) medicine to help you relax. Some people even fall asleep. In some cases, you may be placed under general anesthesia. Most people don’t feel pain during the procedure. You may sense mild discomfort in your chest or shoulder during ablation
After the medicine has taken effect, your healthcare provider will numb an area in your groin. In rare cases, the arm or neck is used.
Next, your healthcare provider will put several IV lines into a blood vessel in your groin and move them toward the heart.
Through the IVs, your healthcare provider will insert several wires and a small catheter into your heart. A type of X-ray helps your healthcare provider see the heart and wires as the procedure is occurring.
The provider will test the electrical system of your heart. He or she will assess the abnormal heart rhythm. This part of the procedure is called an electrophysiology study.
Once the provider finds the abnormal area of the heart, he or she will place another catheter (ablation catheter) to remove the abnormal heart tissue. The provider will use heat or cold energy from the tip of the catheter to destroy (ablate) the problem cells.
After ablation, your healthcare provider will test your heart to make sure that the abnormal heart rhythm is gone. Medicine to stimulate the heart may also be used to test for abnormal heart rhythms.
Your healthcare provider will remove the catheters from your body. Pressure will be put on the insertion site to stop any bleeding.
After catheter ablation, you will be told to lie still for 4 to 6 hours to lower the risk of bleeding. Your heart rhythm will be watched. You will be offered pain medicine if needed. Depending on how your heart is doing and what type of ablation procedure was done, you may be able to go home the same day. In other cases, you may need to stay overnight.
In the days after the procedure, you may have mild symptoms such as an achy chest and mild pain or bruising where the catheter was put in. You might also notice skipped heartbeats or short fluttering of your heartbeat for a few days after the procedure. This depends on the type of ablation procedure you had.
After catheter ablation, follow all instructions from your healthcare provider. Also make sure you:
Don’t drive the next day.
Don’t lift anything over 10 pounds for the next few days.
Don’t exercise for the next 5 days, or until you see your healthcare provider for follow-up.
Keep the insertion sites dry for 2 days.
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have:
Abnormal pain or swelling
A fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, or as directed by your provider
A lot of bleeding
Ongoing problems with your heartbeat
Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:
The name of the test or procedure
The reason you are having the test or procedure
What results to expect and what they mean
The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
What the possible side effects or complications are
When and where you are to have the test or procedure
Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
What would happen if you did not have the test or procedure
Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
When and how you will get the results
Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
How much you will have to pay for the test or procedure