Liposuction is a procedure that removes excess fat through a suctioning process. Although it is not a substitute for weight loss, it can change the body's shape and contour.
Liposuction can be used to remove excess fat that does not respond to exercise and dieting, including fat around the thighs, stomach, upper arms, buttocks, or the waistline.
Some of the different liposuction techniques include the following:
Tumescent technique. The tumescent technique involves the injection of a large quantity of a medical solution into a fatty area. The medical solution is a combination of medicines that numb the area, as well as shrink the capillaries and prevent blood loss. Afterward, a tube connected to a vacuum is inserted into the fat to be treated. The fat is then suctioned out.
Ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty. In the ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty, a special tube that produces ultrasound energy is used. This ultrasound energy breaks down the walls of the fat cells turning them to liquid. The fat is then suctioned out.
Laser-assisted lipoplasty. Lasers help with liposuction by heating fat to make removal more efficient. It causes less bruising and faster healing.
Power-assisted liposuction. A tool on the end of the suction device helps to cut through the fat, making it easier to remove.
Possible complications associated with liposuction techniques may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Injury to the skin or deeper tissues
Irregular skin surface. Changes in the skin surface can occur after liposuction, giving it an asymmetric or baggy look. There can also be changes in the skin pigmentation and areas that may become numb.
Greater risks if large areas are treated. The risk for infection, the formation of blood clots or fat clots, excessive fluid loss, and damage to the skin, nerves, or vital organs is greater when large areas are treated.
Lidocaine toxicity or fluid in the lungs. If the lidocaine content is too high, it may cause lidocaine toxicity. If too much fluid is injected, it may cause fluid buildup in the lungs.
Generally, people of normal weight who have localized areas of protruding fat achieve the best results, however, people who are slightly overweight can also benefit from liposuction. The best candidates for liposuction include the following:
Normal-weight (or slightly-overweight) people
People with firm, elastic skin
People who have pockets of excess fat in certain areas
Physically healthy and psychologically stable people
People with realistic expectations
Age is not a major factor, although older persons with diminished skin elasticity may not have the same results as persons with tighter skin.
Although each procedure varies, generally, liposuction surgeries follow this process:
Surgeon's office-based surgical facility
Outpatient surgery center
Local anesthesia, combined with intravenous sedation (allows the patient to remain awake but relaxed)