Neurological surgery, also called neurosurgery, is the branch of medicine that provides both operative and nonoperative management of disorders that affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, including their supportive structures and vascular supply, and the operative and nonoperative management of pain.
Neurological surgery encompasses disorders of the brain, spine, and nerves, including the following:
The extracranial and intracranial carotid and vertebral arteries
Disorders of the pituitary gland, such as prolactinomas
Tumors in and around the brain, such as gliomas, meningiomas, and acoustic neuromas
Disorders of the spinal cord, meninges, and spine, including those that may need treatment by removing or replacing intervertebral discs, spinal fusion, or instrumentation
Disorders of the peripheral nerves, such as carpal tunnel or entrapped ulnar nerve at the elbow
Disorders of the autonomic nervous system, such as hyperhidrosis
Disorders of movement, such as Parkinson disease and spasticity
Pain disorders, such as failed back syndrome or trigeminal neuralgia
Trauma, such as acute or chronic subdural hematomas
The surgeon who specializes in neurological surgery is called a neurosurgeon or neurological surgeon.