When the mitral valve becomes leaky, it's called mitral valve regurgitation. It’s also known as mitral insufficiency. The mitral valve is one of the heart’s 4 valves. These valves help the blood flow through the heart’s 4 chambers and out to the body. The mitral valve lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Normally, the mitral valve prevents blood flowing back into the left atrium from the left ventricle. In mitral valve regurgitation, however, some blood leaks back through the valve. It doesn’t just flow forward into the ventricle the way it should. Because of this, the heart has to work harder than it should to get blood out to the body. If the regurgitation gets worse, some blood may start to back up into the lungs. A very small amount of mitral regurgitation is common. But some people have severe mitral valve regurgitation.
Mitral valve regurgitation can be acute or chronic. With the acute condition, the valve suddenly becomes leaky. In this case, the heart doesn’t have time to adapt to the leak in the valve. Symptoms with acute mitral regurgitation are often severe. In the chronic form, the valve gradually becomes leakier over time. This gives the heart time to adapt to the leak. With chronic mitral regurgitation, the symptoms may range from mild to severe.
A range of conditions can cause mitral valve regurgitation. They include:
Floppy mitral valve (mitral valve prolapse)
Rheumatic heart disease from untreated infection with strep bacteria
Coronary artery disease or heart attack
Certain autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis
Infection of the heart valves (endocarditis)
Mitral valve problems present at birth (congenital)
Support structures of the mitral valve break (rupture)
Abnormal function of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
Acute mitral valve regurgitation is more likely to happen after a heart attack. It’s also more likely to happen after rupture of the tissue or muscle that supports the mitral valve. It can happen after an acute injury or heart valve infection.
You are more likely to have mitral valve regurgitation if you:
Don't get treated for a strep infection and develop rheumatic heart disease
Use IV drugs. These raise the risk for heart valve infection.
Don't get prompt treatment for health conditions that can lead to the disorder.
Some risk factors you can’t change. For example, some conditions that can lead to mitral valve regurgitation are partly genetic.
Most people with chronic mitral valve regurgitation don’t notice any symptoms for a long time. People with mild or moderate mitral regurgitation often don’t have any symptoms. If the regurgitation becomes more severe, symptoms may start. They may be stronger and happen more often over time. They may include:
Shortness of breath with exertion
Shortness of breath when lying flat
Reduced ability to exercise
Unpleasant awareness of your heartbeat
Swelling in your legs, abdomen, and the veins in your neck
Chest pain (less common)
Acute, severe mitral valve regurgitation is a medical emergency. It can cause serious symptoms such as:
Symptoms of shock, such as pale skin, loss of consciousness, or rapid breathing
Severe shortness of breath
Abnormal heart rhythms that make the heart unable to pump less well
Your healthcare provider will take your health history and give you a physical exam. Using a stethoscope, your provider will check for heart murmurs and other signs of the condition. You may also have tests such as:
Echocardiogram to assess severity
Stress echocardiogram to assess exercise tolerance
Electrocardiogram (ECG) to assess heart rhythm
Treatment varies depending its cause. It also varies depending on how severe and sudden the condition is. And it depends on your overall health. Mitral valve regurgitation can increase risk for other heart rhythm problems such as atrial fibrillation.
If you have mild or moderate mitral valve regurgitation, you may not need any treatment. Your healthcare provider may just choose to watch your condition. You may need regular echocardiograms over time if you have moderate mitral valve regurgitation. Your healthcare provider might also prescribe medicines such as:
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers to help reduce the workload of the heart when a person’s pump function is not working as well
Medicines to slow the heart rate if you develop atrial fibrillation
Water pills (diuretics) to reduce swelling and improve symptoms
Blood thinners (anticoagulants) to help prevent blood clots if you have atrial fibrillation
Surgery may be needed with severe mitral valve regurgitation. Surgery is often needed right away for acute severe mitral valve regurgitation. The surgeon may be able to repair the mitral valve. In some cases, a replacement valve is needed. Your surgeon might use a valve made of pig, cow, or human heart tissue. Man-made mechanical valves are another option. Talk with your surgeon about which one is right for you. Your surgeon might do open surgery or a minimally invasive repair. If you have atrial fibrillation, the surgeon may do a Maze procedure. This is a type of heart surgery that can reduce the future risk of atrial fibrillation. In some cases, a clip can be used to reduce the amount of mitral regurgitation. This can eliminate the need for surgery or delay it. Moderate or severe mitral regurgitation can cause problems during pregnancy. These women may need to have valve surgery before they become pregnant.
Mitral valve regurgitation can cause complications such as:
Atrial fibrillation, in which the atria of the heart don’t contract well. This leads to increased risk of stroke
Elevated blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary artery hypertension)
Dilation of the heart
Bacterial infection of the heart valves. This is more likely after valve replacement surgery.
Complications from valve replacement surgery such as excess bleeding or infection
To reduce the risk of these complications, your healthcare provider may prescribe:
Blood-thinning medicine that prevent blood clots
Medicines to reduce the stress load of the heart
Antibiotics before certain medical and dental procedures. In most cases, you will only need antibiotics if you have had valve surgery or previous bacterial infection of heart valves.
You'll need to see your healthcare provider for regular monitoring. See your healthcare provider right away if your symptoms change. Note your symptoms when exercising. Symptoms may get worse during physical activity. Talk with your provider about your exercise program and what is right for you. If you have progressive mitral regurgitation, your healthcare provider may advise avoiding competitive sports. Tell all of your healthcare providers and dentists about your medical history.
Your healthcare provider may want to treat you for heart problems related to mitral valve regurgitation. Treatments may include:
A low salt, heart healthy diet (to decrease blood pressure and the stress on your heart)
Blood pressure lowering medicines
Medicines to reduce the risk of arrhythmias
Reduction of caffeine and alcohol to reduce risk of arrhythmias
If you notice your symptoms are slowly getting worse, plan to see your healthcare provider. You may need surgery or a medicine change.
See your healthcare provider right away if:
You have severe shortness of breath or chest pain
You notice sudden new symptoms
With mitral valve regurgitation, the heart’s mitral valve is leaky. Some blood flows back into the left atrium from the left ventricle.
You may not have symptoms for many years.
Chronic mitral valve regurgitation may get worse and need surgery.
Acute, severe mitral valve regurgitation is a medical emergency. It needs surgery right away.
See your healthcare provider for regular check-ups to monitor your condition. If your symptoms get worse or become severe, see your healthcare provider right away.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.