Ejection fraction (EF) is a measurement of how much blood your heart pumps out when it beats. It helps your doctor diagnose and monitor of heart failure.
Your heart has 4 chambers. The top 2 chambers are called the atria. They take blood in from the veins and lungs. The bottom 2 are called ventricles. They are the pumping chambers of the heart. When your heart beats, the right ventricle pumps blood to your lungs. The left ventricle pumps blood to the brain, heart arteries, and the rest of your body. The EF is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle with each heartbeat. Even in a healthy heart, some blood stays behind in the ventricles.
EFs between 50% and 70% are considered normal for the left ventricle. An EF under 40% means the muscle is weakened and you may have heart failure. In heart failure, the EF number can become very low. An EF of 20% is about one-third of the normal ejection fraction. This means 80% of the blood stays in the ventricle. The heart is not pumping all the oxygen-rich blood the body needs. The blood that is not ejected from the ventricle can back up into the lungs and cause shortness of breath. Over time, this can lead to fluid buildup and swelling (edema) in the belly (abdomen) and legs.
Heart failure with reduced EF is also known as systolic heart failure.
Another type of heart failure is known as diastolic heart failure. Some people have a normal ejection fraction. But the heart muscle becomes stiff. It doesn’t relax normally between contractions. This keeps the ventricles from filling with blood. EF is often in the normal range. This can still lead to the backup of blood into the body and affect the organs such as the liver.
Doctors can use an echocardiogram or other tests to meausre EF and see how well your heart is working. The other tests include cardiac MRI, cardiac CT, cardiac catheterization, and nuclear imaging.
EF is very important. It is one of the most common methods of reporting overall heart function. But it's important to note that some people have heart failure symptoms despite a normal EF. Also, although a low EF is never normal, with treatment some people can lead a fairly normal, active life despite a lower EF.
If the EF drops too low and doesn't respond to treatment, you may need special devices and medicines until another treatment can be done. This might be a heart transplant.