The millions of Americans diagnosed with heart and vascular diseases can benefit from making healthy choices in their day-to-day lives.
Eating a nutritious diet is a proven way to reduce the risk for heart disease. These are the elements of a heart-healthy diet (amounts listed are for adults):
Eat 2 cups fresh fruits and 2-1/2 to 3 cups vegetables every day.
Limit saturated and trans fats by using olive oil or other vegetable oils instead of butter or margarine. Consume less than 10% of calories per day from saturated fats. Remember also to limit the total fat intake to less than 30% of your daily calories.
Eat more chicken and fish and less red meat. Avoid processed meats which are loaded with preservatives, sodium, and sugars.
Eat 6 to 8 ounces of grains, of which at least half should be from whole-grain bread and cereal.
Get enough dietary fiber per day. For women, it is 25 grams. For men, it is 38 grams. Dietary sources of fiber include fruits, vegetables, breakfast cereals, bran, whole-wheat products, beans (legumes), and nuts.
Limit or eliminate fast foods, which are often loaded with salt, sugar and fats. Consume less than 10% of calories per day from added sugars. For a 2000 calorie per day diet in active individuals, less than 10% of daily calorie intake is equal to 200 calories a day or 50 grams of sugar in one day. If you keep a food diary, you can see that this adds up fast as sugar is often substituted for fat to add flavor.
If you drink alcohol, do so only in moderation. That means no more than 2 drinks a day if you're a man, 1 if you're a woman.
Limit your salt and sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day. Foods that are frozen or canned tend to have more sodium. This is to extend the shelf life and add flavor. Using raw ingredients to cook can help you control the amount of sodium in your food.
Get the equivalent of 3 cups of fat-free or low-fat milk or dairy products (or soy, rice, or almond milk for people who can’t tolerate lactose) every day. Milk and milk alternatives should have 130 calories or less per 8 fluid oz.
Regular exercise keeps your heart and the rest of your body in shape. These are ways to add more activity to your life:
Check with your healthcare provider before starting an exercise program if you've been sedentary or have a chronic disease.
Start slowly and increase your activity gradually to at least 30 to 40 minutes of moderate to high intensity activities, 4 to 5 days a week. You can do this by taking a brisk walk.
Do weight training and stretching exercises 2 or more times per week that will work all major muscle groups.
Smoking is a major risk factor for heart disease. Here's how to live smoke-free:
Decide to quit and set a quit date. If you fail, try again. Successful quitters often tried many times before they were able to quit.
Ask your healthcare provider for information about aids lo help you stop smoking like a nicotine patch or inhaler, medicines, and a counseling or support program.
Constant anger and stress can damage your heart. Try these tips to better cope with life's pressures:
Try to be positive instead of negative in your outlook on life.
Take 15 to 20 minutes a day to sit quietly and breathe deeply.
Take time for yourself each day. Read a book, listen to music, or enjoy a hobby.
Get regular exercise. Exercise is a great way to relieve stress. Yoga and tai chi are good activities for improving flexibility and easing stress.
Drink more water. Also cut back on caffeine. Doing these things can reduce the physical stress on your body if you are sensitive to caffeine.
Take charge when it comes to your heart's health. To do so, work with your healthcare provider to reduce your heart disease risk by following up with him or her for treatment for high blood pressure and cholesterol levels.